The Tyranny of the Rulers is Not a Reason for Rebellion

tyrant rulers

The goal of the Jihadist sects is one and the same: rebellion against those in authority and a desire to rule over the Muslim lands. They may alter their names and titles but their ideology remains the same. Islam itself, despite what these sects assert, forbids open censure and rebellion against even the most wicked and tyrannical of Muslim rulers. The Prophet of Allaah (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam), upon whose statements and actions we establish our religion, stated in an authentic tradition:

“There will appear after me rulers, they will not guide by my guidance, and they will not establish my Sunnah; there will be amongst them men whose hearts will be hearts of devils in the bodies of men!” He was asked: “How should I behave, O Messenger of Allaah, if I reach that time?” He replied: “Hear and obey the Amir (i.e. the ruler), even if he beats your back and [illegally] takes your wealth – hear and obey!” [Sahih Muslim, Book of Rulership]

There are five traits in this statement in the presence of which it is still obligatory to hear and obey the rulers in that which constitutes good: their lack of implementing the Prophetic guidance, their lack of implementing the Prophetic Sunnah, their having the hearts of devils, their beating their subjects and illegally taking their wealth.  A bitter pill to swallow for those not truly nurtured upon the Quran and the authentic Prophetic Methodology.

In another authentic tradition, the Messenger (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam) stated:

“Hear and obey the ruler in that which is difficult for you and in that which is easy for you, in times of invigoration and in times of dislike and weariness and when others are given preferential treatment over you – even if they take and consume your wealth and they beat your back – except that you do not obey them if it involves disobedience to Allaah.” [Ibn Hibban in his Sahih, no. 4562, authenticated by al-Albani. Note that the Prophet commanded the Muslims not to obey the ruler in disobedience to Allaah, but he did not command with rebellion. And it is possible to disobey the Ruler without raising the sword against him or calling for his overthrow.]

And there will be those of little faith and even less knowledge that will frown and cringe when they hear these texts, finding any excuse to reject them due to their blind following of their extremist groups and ideologues, usually by utilising labels of apostasy upon rulers and thereby claiming that they are not bound to abide by these texts.

However, the bar set by the legislation is high as the Prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam) stated that removing the ruler is not permitted, “unless you see clear open disbelief for which you have evidence from Allaah.” [Sahih Bukhari]

So the disbelief must be something which is clear and apparent, something seen and known for which one can bring textual evidence for. So it is not permitted to rebel against the ruler in an issue in which there is a difference of opinion as to whether it is disbelief or not, as that opposes the statement of the Prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam)“unless you see clear open disbelief.” This also requires that the ruler recognised the act to be apostasy and therefore cannot be excused for being ignorant; that he did not commit the deed in error not intending it [1]; that he was not wrongly advised by those around him who call themselves religious scholars and thus gave him sanction to commit disbelief without him knowing it [2] – so all of this constitutes a valid excuse and a barrier against the declaration of apostasy. Anything short of this clarity is conjecture and in opposition to the meaning of this hadith.

Allaah, the Most High, stated:

“And We never punish until We have sent a Messenger to give warning.” [Surah Al-Isra’, 17:15]

So Allaah does not punish a soul until the proofs are established, and this is from the perfect justice of Allaah.

Ibn Taymiyyah (died 728H, rahimahullaah) stated:

“I am one of those most severe in forbidding that a person in particular should be declared as an unbeliever, an open sinner or a sinful transgressor until it is known that the proof of the Messenger is established upon him, the like of which, if it is opposed one becomes an unbeliever or a sinner or a transgressor. And I affirm that Allaah has forgiven the mistakes of this Nation (Ummah) – and that is general for affairs of belief, sayings and actions.” [Majmu’ al-Fatawa, 3/229]

The Jihadists try to use isolated statements of Ibn Taymiyyah to support their positions, but this is a smoke screen set up to deceive the Muslims and dishonour this great scholar. Ibn Taymiyyah also stated clearly that there are legitimate barriers to the declaration of takfir upon the person who apparently denies the texts:

“It is possible that a man has not heard these revealed texts, or that he heard them but they are not established as being authentic with him, or as far as he sees they contradict other texts necessitating interpretation, even if it is incorrect.” [Majmu’ al-Fatawa of Ibn Taymiyyah 3/231]

What follows is a clear example where the Messenger of Allaah (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam) mentioned an individual who was excused and forgiven for his ignorance of the revealed texts concerning the Resurrection. He (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam) stated:

“Death approached a man and when he had no hope of surviving, he said to his family, ‘When I die, gather much wood and build a fire to burn me. When the fire has eaten my flesh and reached my bones, take my bones and grind them and scatter the resulting dust in the sea on a windy day, for I swear by Allaah, if Allaah takes hold of me, He will punish me with a punishment that He has not punished any of the creation with.’” So that was done, but Allaah collected his scattered particles and brought him back together and asked him, ‘Why did you do that?’ The man replied, ‘Out of fear of you.’ So Allaah forgave him.” [Reported by al-Bukhari and Muslim]

Ibn Taymiyyah (rahimahullaah) stated:

“So this man was in doubt regarding the ability of Allaah and in His resurrection of him if he was mere dust. Rather he was certain that he would not be resurrected; and this is disbelief by the consensus of the Muslims, but he was ignorant, and he did not know that. He was a believer who feared that Allaah would punish him, but He forgave him.

And the one who has an [incorrect] interpretation or understanding from the people of jurisprudence, those ardent in their following of the Messenger , then they are more deserving of forgiveness than the likes of this man.” [Majmu’ al-Fatawa, 3/231]

The radicals do not embark upon the establishment of these evidences and principles as they know that these will become a barrier to their ideas of takfir and revolution. Indeed the vast majority of them, if not all of them, do not even believe in the importance of establishing the proofs against an individual before condemning them to apostasy and an eternity in Hell.

But these are not just a few isolated texts forbidding rebellion; rather there are hundreds of sayings from the Prophet, his Companions and in the writings of the earliest generations of illustrious scholars [Visit and for more examples].

The great eighth century scholar Ibn al-Qayyim  (died 752H) said:

“The Prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam) legislated for this nation the obligation of rejecting the evil so that by its rejection, the goodness that Allaah and His Messenger love is obtained. And when rejecting evil leads to what is more evil and more hated by Allaah and His Messenger, then it is not allowed to reject it – even if Allaah hates the evil and detests those who perform it. And this is like censuring [the transgressions] of the kings and the ones in authority by coming out to fight against them for verily that is the basis and foundation of every evil and every tribulation till the end of time. And the Companions asked permission from Allaah’s Messenger to kill the leaders who delay the prayer from its correct time saying, ‘Shall we not kill them?’ He replied, ‘No, so long as they establish the prayer.’ And he also said, ‘Whoever sees something from his Ruler that he dislikes, then let him be patient and let him not remove his hand from the Ruler’s obedience.’

And whoever reflects upon the greatest and smallest trials that have befallen Islam, then he will see that that they are due to the negligence and wastage of this principle and the lack of patience when witnessing evil. So one seeks to bring about an end to evil and as a result of this, instead a greater evil is brought about. And the Messenger  saw the greatest of evils in Makkah and yet he was not able to change them. In fact even when Allaah opened up Makkah for the Muslims and it became a land of Islam, he was resolved to changing the Kabah and returning it to the foundations that Ibrahim had built it upon, but even though he had the capacity to do that, he was prevented from it by the fear that something greater would occur due to the lack of tolerance of the [tribe of] Quraish, since they were new to Islam and had recently left unbelief.

For this reason he did not grant permission for rebelling against the leaders with the use of one’s hand due to the greatness of what results afterwards on account of it.” [Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyah, I’lam al-Muwaqqi’in ‘an Rabb il-’Alameem.]

Hasan al-Basri (died 110H) was a great scholar of the first Islamic century and there is no dispute regarding his credentials and immense knowledge. Ibn Sa’d  relates:

“A group of Muslims came to al-Hasan al-Basri seeking a verdict to rebel against al-Hajjaj [3] (a tyrannical and despotic general). So they said, “O Abu Said! What do you say about fighting this oppressor who has unlawfully spilt blood and unlawfully taken wealth and has done this and done that?”

So al-Hasan said, “I hold that he should not be fought. If this is a punishment from Allaah, then you will not be able to remove it with your swords. If this is a trial from Allaah, then be patient until Allaah’s judgement comes, and He is the best of judges.” So they left al-Hasan, disagreed with him and rebelled against al-Hajjaj – so al-Hajjaj killed them all. Al-Hasan used to say, “If the people had patience when they are being tested by their unjust ruler, it will not be long before Allaah will give them a way out. However, they always rush for their swords, so they are left with their swords. By Allaah! Not even for a single day did they bring about any good.” [Tabaqat al-Kubra (7/163-165)]

After reading the words of the noble Prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam) and the commentaries of the righteous scholars, one naturally comes to the conclusion that rebellions, assassinations and coup d’etats are all against the teachings of Islam.

The Kharijite sects are known for preaching and challenging the Muslim rulers publicly and from the pulpits; they incite the Muslim youth that leads them to violent acts often resulting in suicide attacks.

Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal (died 241H) was beaten and jailed by four consecutive kings. Despite that, he viewed revolt to be unlawful against those who violated the Islamic belief and punished him for not agreeing with them. Hanbal bin Ishaq  said:

“During the rule of Wathiq, the jurists of Baghdad gathered in front of Ahmad bin Hanbal. They included Abu Bakr bin Ubaid, Ibrahim bin Ali al-Matbakhi and Fadl bin Asim. So they came to Ahmad bin Hanbal so I gave them permission. They said to him, This affair (i.e. the inquisition) has become aggravated and elevated. They were referring to the ruler making manifest the issue of the Quran being created and other than that. So Ahmad bin Hanbal said to them, ‘So what is it that you want?’ They said: ‘We want you to join us in saying that we are not pleased with his rule and leadership.’

So Ahmad bin Hanbal debated with them for an hour and he said to them: ‘Keep opposing [the false belief itself] with your statements but do not remove your hands from obedience and do not encourage the Muslims to rebel and do not spill your blood and the blood of the Muslims along with you. Look to the results of your actions. And remain patient until you are content with a righteous or sinful rule.’” [Mihnatul-Imam Ahmad (p. 70-72); al-Khallal in as-Sunnah (no. 90) with an authentic chain of narration.]

Ibn Taymiyyah (died 728H) stated:

“Ahmad [bin Hanbal] and his like did not declare these rulers to be disbelievers. Rather he believed them to have Imaan and believed in their leadership and he supplicated for them, and he was of the view that they were to be followed in the prayers and Hajj, and military expeditions were to be made with them. He prohibited rebellion against them – and it (i.e. rebellion) was never seen from the likes of him from amongst the scholars. Yet he still opposed whatever they innovated of false statements, since that was major disbelief, even if they did not know it [4]. He would oppose it and strive to refute it with whatever was possible. So there must be a combination of obeying Allaah and His Messenger  in manifesting the Sunnah and Religion and opposing the innovations of the heretical Jahmites [5], and between protecting the rights of the believers, the rulers and the Ummah, even if they are ignorant innovators and transgressing sinners.” [Majmu’ al-Fatawa, 7/507-508.]

Indeed, there is in the many works of Ibn Taymiyyah  a thorough refutation of the arguments and polemics of the Kharijites, an example of which is what is found in Minhaj as-Sunnah. [Ibn Taymiyyah, Minhaj as-Sunnah, 4/527 and onwards.]:

“And there is hardly anyone who revolted against a leader with authority except that what arose from his action of evil, was actually greater than whatever good came from it, such as those who rebelled against Yazeed in Madinah, or like Ibn al-Ashath who revolted against Abdul-Malik in Iraq, or like Ibn al-Mihlab also, who revolted against his son in Khurasan, and like those who revolted against al-Mansur in Madinah and Basrah, and the likes of them…

And it is for this reason that it is firmly established with Ahlus-Sunnah to abandon fighting in times of tribulation due to the authentic narrations that are established from the Prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam); and they (the Scholars) began to mention this matter in the course of [authoring their works] in Creed, and they would command with patience towards the oppression of the leaders, and the abandonment of fighting against them – even if a fair portion of the people of knowledge fought against them during the tribulation…

And whoever reflects upon the authentic narrations that are established from the Prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam) concerning this topic, and also considers with the consideration of those with insight and deep knowledge, will know that that which the Prophetic texts have come with is from the best of all affairs…

And all of this is what explains that whatever the Prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam) has commanded of patience towards the tyranny of the rulers and abandonment of fighting against them and revolting against them, that this is of the most beneficial and rectifying of affairs, in both this life and the next, and that whoever opposes this deliberately, or due to an error, then no rectification is attained by his action, rather only corruption…

And he ordered having patience upon their misappropriation, and prohibited fighting against them, and contending with them (for authority), due to their oppression. Because the corruption, mischief that arises from fighting during tribulation (fitnah) is greater than the corruption in the oppression of those in authority. Thus, the lesser of two evils is not to be removed by the greater of the two.”

The noble scholar Shaikh al-Albani  (rahimahullaah, died 1420H) was asked, “Is that which is known nowadays as a military coup against the ruler mentioned in the Religion or is it an innovation?” So the Shaikh answered:

“There is no basis for these acts in Islam. And it is in opposition to the Islamic manhaj (methodology) with respect to the dawah (Islamic call) and creating the right atmosphere for it. Rather it is an innovation introduced by the innovators which has affected some Muslims. This is what I have stated and explained in my notes to al-Aqeedah at-Tahawiyyah. [A famous book of creed from the fourth century authored by Imam Abu Ja’far Ahmad ibn Muhammad At-Tahawi (died 321H).]” [Al-Asalah magazine, issue 10]

The Messenger of Allaah (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam) made it explicitly clear that it is forbidden to speak openly against the Muslim ruler, but rather to advise him in private, regardless of his tyranny:

“Whosoever wishes to advise the Ruler, let him not do so openly. Rather he should take him by his hand and take him into seclusion [and advise him]. So if he accepts that from him, then it is in his favour, and if he does not accept, then at least he fulfilled his duty.” [Authentically reported by Imam Ahmad in al-Musnad, no. 15359, as-Sunnah, no. 1097 with al-Albani’s checking.]

To advise the oppressive ruler directly to his face is considered in Islam to be from the best forms of Jihad. It is reported that the Messenger of Allaah (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam) said:

“The most superior form of Jihad is to say a word of truth in the face of an oppressive ruler.” [Refer to Sahih Jami’ as-Saghir of al-Albani, and it is authentic. It is reported by Abu Sa’id al-Khudri, Abu Umamah and Tariq bin Shihab.]

He (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam) also stated in clear terms:

“The chief of the martyrs is Hamzah (the uncle of the Prophet) as well as a man who stands before an unjust ruler, commanding him with good and forbidding him from evil, for which the ruler kills him.” [Reported by al-Hakim, verified to be authentic by al-Albani in as-Sahihah, no. 174.]

This reward is for the one who is in the presence of the ruler, not the one who screams for rebellion from pulpits thousands of miles away and from anonymous internet forums using hidden titles and invented names. That is certainly not Jihad and nor rectification.

True Jihad, in reality begins by combating (with textual proofs) the deviants who wish to corrupt the message of Islam, such as the extremists. Shaikh ‘Abdur-Rahman as-Sa’di  (died 1376H, rahimahullaah), said:

“Jihad is of two types. The Jihad by which the correction and purity of the Muslims is intended and rectification of their beliefs, manners and all of the affairs pertaining to their lives, both the religious and the worldly affairs. And also [Jihad] in cultivating them with knowledge and action. This type is the fundamental basis of Jihad and its support. And it is from this first type that the second type finds its basis, and that is the Jihad by which those who show transgression against Islam and the Muslims, from amongst the disbelievers, hypocrites, heretical apostates and all of the enemies of the religion are repelled and held at bay.” [Wujub ut-Ta’awan bain al-Muslimin (p.7-8)]

And this is what the Salafi scholars of Ahlus-Sunnah have remained upon throughout the centuries. They consider that the Jihad against the innovators is the basis or the foundation, and the Jihad against the disbelievers branches off from that Jihad.

If one is not able to advise the rulers due to ignorance or inability, then he does not openly rebuke the rulers, as Allaah’s Messenger (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam) has forbidden that – upon him in this situation is to supplicate for the guidance of the Muslim rulers as agreed upon by the early scholars. [The Creed of Imam al-Bukhari, p.40]

The great Imam al-Barbahari  (died 329H, rahimhaullaah) stated the position and consensus of the Muslims towards their rulers:

“If you find a man making supplication against the ruler, know that he is a person of innovation (deviation). If you find a person making supplication for the ruler to be upright, know that he is a person of the Sunnah, if Allaah wills.

We are ordered to make supplication for them (i.e. the rulers) to be upright. We have not been ordered to make supplication against them, even if they commit tyranny and oppression, since their tyranny and oppression reflect only upon themselves but their rectitude is good for themselves and the Muslims.” [Sharhus-Sunnah of al-Barbahari]

The great scholar Ibn Baz  (died 1420AH) was asked, “Is it from the methodology of the Salaf [6] to criticize the rulers from the pulpits?  And what is the methodology of the Salaf in advising the rulers?”  So he answered:

“It is not from the methodology of the Salaf to criticize the rulers from the pulpits, because that would incite chaos, and it would involve not listening and obeying in that which is good. And this would mean becoming engrossed in that which harms and does not benefit.  However, the way of advising that the Salaf followed was to write to the ruler, or to convey the advice to the Scholars who would then convey it to him, until he has been directed towards good. So opposing the evil can be done without mentioning the doer.  So adultery, intoxicants and interest can be opposed without mentioning the one who is involved in them.  And it is enough of an opposition to sins that they be warned against without mentioning that so and so is involved in them, whether it is the ruler, or other than the ruler.

And when the fitnah (trial, discord) occurred in the time of Uthman [7] , some people said to Usamah bin Zayd , Will you not speak to Uthman?’  So he said, ‘Do you think that I have not spoken to him, just because you have not heard it from me?  Verily I will speak to him concerning what is between him and me, without opening an affair which I would not like to be the first to open.’ [An authentic narration: Related by Ahmad (3/403) and Ibn Abi ‘Asim (2/521).]

So when they (the Kharijites) opened it, evil took place in the time of Uthman (radhiAllaahu anhu).  They opposed Uthman (radhiAllaahu anhu) openly, thus completing the tribulations, fighting and corruption, which has not ceased to affect the people to this day, was brought about. And this caused the tribulation to occur between Ali (radhiAllaahu anhu) and Muawiyah (radhiAllaahu anhu), and Uthman was killed for these reasons…

Furthermore, a large number of Companions and others besides them were killed due to this open rebellion and the open proclamation of the faults of the ruler, until the people began to hate the one charged with authority over them and killed him. We ask Allaah for success.” [Refer to Al-Ma’loom min Wajibil-’Ilaqah baynal-Hakim wal-Mahkoom, pp. 22-33.]

In a visit to Makkah in the year 1926CE King Abdul-’Aziz Al-Sa’ud , the then king of Saudi Arabia proclaimed the constitution of the Kingdom, stating:

Article 5: All of the laws of the Kingdom are executed in accordance to the Book of Allaah and the Sunnah of His Messenger  and in accordance to that which the Companions and the Salaf us-Salih were upon.” [Al-Wajiz fi Sirat al-Malik ‘Abdul-’Aziz, pp. 90-91.]

Regardless of these proclamations from the rulers, the radicals still declare them to be unbelievers, worthy of being killed. And this is due to the fact that they see deficiencies and imperfections in the rule.

Shaikh Salih al-Fawzan was asked:

“Respected Shaikh, yourself and your brothers who are scholars in this country are Salafis – and all praise is due to Allaah – and your method in advising the rulers is that of the Shari’ah and as the Prophet  has explained, yet there are those who find fault with you due to your neglect in openly rejecting the various oppositions [to the Shari’ah] that have occurred. And yet others make excuses for you by saying that you are under the control and pressure of the state. So do you have any words of direction or clarification to these people?”

So Shaikh al-Fawzan answered with clear and unambiguous words:

“There is no doubt that the rulers, just like people besides them, are not infallible. Advising them is an obligation. However, attacking them in the gatherings and upon the pulpits is considered to be the forbidden form of backbiting. And this evil is greater than that which occurred from the ruler since it is backbiting and because of what results from backbiting such as the sowing of the seeds of discord, causing disunity and affecting the progression of dawah (the call to Islam). Hence what is obligatory is to make sure advice reaches the rulers by sound and trustworthy avenues, not by publicizing and causing commotion. And as for reviling the Scholars of this country, that they do not give advice [to the rulers], or that they are being controlled in their affairs, this is a method by which separation between the Scholars, the youth and the society is desired, until it becomes possible for the mischief-maker to sow the seeds of his evil. This is because when evil suspicions are harbored about the Scholars, trust is no longer placed in them and then the chance is available for the biased partisans to spread their poison. And I believe that this thought is actually a schemed plot that has come into this country, and those who are behind it are foreign to this country [Such as the ideology of Sayyid Qutb and his brother Muhammad Qutb.]. It is obligatory upon the Muslims to be cautious of it.” [Al-Ajwibah al-Mufidah of Shaikh Salih al-Fawzan]

Likewise the former Mufti of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Imam Muhammad bin Ibrahim  stated:

“The government [of Saudi Arabia], praise be to Allaah, its constitution (dustur) is the Book of Allaah and the Sunnah of His Messenger (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam); and it has opened the Islamic courts for that purpose, for the actualisation of the statement of Allaah:

‘And if you differ in any affair between yourselves, then refer it back to Allaah and His Messenger.’ [Surah An-Nisa’, 4:59]

And that which is besides this, then he is one who judges by jahiliyyah, about which Allaah, the Most High, said:

‘Do they then seek the judgement of (the Days of) Ignorance? And who is better in judgement than Allaah for a people who have firm Faith?’ [Surah Al-Maidah 5:50]” [Fatawa Ash-Shaikh Muhammad bin Ibrahim, 12/288]

Incitement begins with an ideology; an ideology that is preached and emotions aroused against the Muslim governments which, in turn leads to bloodshed and killing of innocents; youths who throw their lives away for sinful causes; as a result innocent Muslim and non-Muslim men, women and children are murdered indiscriminately. And this is the ultimate goal of Hizb ut-Tahrir as they openly admit on their website: “It is a call to the blood so that it agitates in the veins, to the hearts so that they become full with rage; thus they become firmly resolved, have [far] reaching aims.”

The corruption of the rulers and rulership is not something new, rather it is something found throughout the ages. The Messenger of Allaah (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam) said:

“The handholds of Islam will be demolished one by one, and every time one of them is demolished, the people will hold on tightly to the one that follows it. The first one to be demolished is the rule (al-hukum) and the last of them will be the prayer.” [Imam Ahmad (5/251), Ibn Hibban (6715), with a good chain of narration.]

And the early hadith scholar, Ibn Hibban  mentioned this narration under the chapter heading:

“A mention of the reports that the first breakage of the handholds of Islam will appear from the direction of the rulers; [and it] is the corruption of rulership and the rulers.”

So this was something well-known, yet we do not find in the example of the Companions and those early scholars, any methodology that resembles the methodology of the extremist groups of rebellion and bloodshed.


[1] Shaikh Ibn ‘Uthaimin mentions that an example of this is like the one who loses control over his thoughts and does not know what he is saying – due to extreme joy, or other similar reasons. There is an authentic hadith wherein a man lay under a tree waiting for death after losing his camel laiden with supplies; and then suddenly the camel’s reigns are caught in the tree, so he takes hold of them and exclaims, “O Allaah! Indeed you are my slave and I am your Lord!” mixing up his words due to extreme joy. (Reported by Muslim, no. 6611). So Allaah did not take him to account for that slip of the tongue, nor did He declare him to be a disbeliever. See Majmu al-Fatawa war-Rasa’il, no.341.

[2] This occurred in the time of Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal (died 241H) when the misguided Jahmite ‘scholars’, such Ibn Abi Duwad and Bishr al-Marisi, convinced the rulers to adopt heretical beliefs, yet the scholars did not declare the rulers to be unbelievers.

[3] Hajjaj bin Yusuf was responsible for widespread oppression and killing towards the end of the time of the Companions. He besieged Makkah and bombarded the Ka’bah. He killed the Companion ‘Abdullah bin Zubair and crucified him in Makkah. See as-Siyar of Adh-Dhahabi.

[4] This is the position of the scholars and jurists of the orthodox Ahlus-Sunnah and Salafism, i.e. that it is possible for a person to commit major disbelief in creed, statement or action, but still remain within the fold of Islam due to the fact that he was ignorant of the Islamic texts, and had he known of the Islamic ruling he would immediately correct himself.

[5] The Jahmites are an early sect that negate or explain away [by the use of metaphors] the Names and Attributes of Allaah, the Most High. They took their teachings from Jahm bin Safwan (died 128H) who in turn was a disciple of Ja’d bin Dirham (died 124H) both of whom denied amongst other things that Allaah spoke to the Prophet Musa (Moses), that He took Ibrahim (Abraham) as a close friend, that He is the Most High above His creation and distinct from it. See for more information regarding this sect.

[6] Salaf: Those who came before us from the earliest generations of Muslims. In the purest sense, the term refers to the Companions of the Prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam). And thus, a Salafi is a Muslim who precisely follows their way in creed, methodology and all affairs of religion.

[7] ‘Uthman bin Affan (radhiAllaahu anhu): The noble Companion of the Prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam), who married two of his daughters, after one died, the Prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam) offered him the other for marriage – thus he is nicknamed “Dhun-Nurayn”, (Possessor of the two Lights). He was the third Rightly Guided Caliph of Islam. It is not permissible to criticise or attack him or his character. Sayyid Qutb famously launched severe criticisms against this Caliph as well as several other Companions of the Prophet . Visit and for evidenced proofs.

For further reading, refer to the book, “The Rise of Jihadist Extremism in the West,” Salafi Publications.

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