Sifat Wudhu’ al-Nabi: The Characteristics of the Ablution of the Prophet

wudhu_ablution

Sifat Wudhu’ al-Nabi: The Characteristics of the Ablution of the Prophet

A translation of the small treatise concerning ablution by Fahd ibn ‘Abd al-Rahman al-Shu’ayb. This treatise covers all the intricate details for the ablution of the Salafi. It also reconciles the differences of opinion that are found in some aspects of this act of worship.

bismallah

Introduction

Preface

Verily all praise is for Allaah, we praise Him and seek His aid and ask for His forgiveness, and we seek refuge with Allaah from the evils of ourselves and our evil actions. Whomever Allaah guides there is none who can misguide him, and whomever Allaah misguides there is none who can guide him, and I bear witness that none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah Alone, having no partner, and I bear witness that Muhammad is His slave and His Messenger.

“O mankind! Be dutiful to your Lord, Who created you from a single person (Adam), and from him (Adam) He created his wife [Hawwa (Eve)], and from them both He created many men and women and fear Allah through Whom you demand your mutual (rights), and (do not cut the relations of) the wombs (kinship). Surely, Allah is Ever an All-Watcher over you.” [Surah an-Nisa, 4:1]

“O you who believe! Fear Allah (by doing all that He has ordered and by abstaining from all that He has forbidden) as He should be feared.” [Surah ali-‘Imran, 3:102]

“O you who have believed, fear Allah and speak words of appropriate justice. He will direct you to do righteous good deeds and will forgive you your sins. And whosoever obeys Allah and His Messenger (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam) he has indeed achieved a great achievement (i.e. he will be saved from the Hell-fire and made to enter Paradise).” [Surah al-Ahzab, 33:70-71]

As for what follows: Verily the most truthful speech is the Word of Allaah and the best guidance is the guidance of Muhammad (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam), and the worst of affairs are the novelties and every novelty is an innovation and every innovation is a going astray and every going astray is in the Fire.

I desired to write this as a completion for the treatises which are in circulation amongst the people today – about the different fields – especially of worship such as Prayer and Fasting, etc. – which have made easier that which is difficult as regards religious rulings and being guided thereby, as it maybe difficult these days for some to read, research and extract these rulings from their places within the source books – either because of the ignorance of the Muslims or laziness or other worldly problems. I sincerely advise all the Muslims to read and research until they come to know and understand their true Deen – and I wished to write this in order to complete the series of the types of worship, especially since no one has particularized this topic in a treatise – except what occurs within the books of reference as we have explained – but I have not found this in the form of a treatise.

My method for this treatise has been not to quote except what is authentic from the hadith of Rasoolullah (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam) – if Allaah wishes – ordering it according to the order of the Wudhu’ of Rasoolullah (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam), and I have commented on some of the points about which there is difference of opinion – stating that which is correct therefrom in our view after replying to the other opinions.

I ask Allaah to guide us to that which is proper – verily He is the One having authority over that and having the Power to do so.

The Definition of Wudhu’

Wudhu’ in the al-‘Arabic Language:

Wudhu’ is the action, and wadhu the water used therefore – and it is also a verbal noun; or they are two forms of the same word, both meaning the verbal-noun and maybe both referring also to the water used.

Wudhu’ in the Shari’ah:

Wudhu’ is using clean and cleansing (Tuhoor) water upon certain body parts as Allaah ta’ala has prescribed and explained.

The Prescription of Wudhu’ in The Kitab And Sunnah

Allaah ta’ala says:

“O you who believe! When you intend to offer As-Salat (the prayer), wash your faces and your hands (forearms) up to the elbows, rub (by passing wet hands over) your heads, and (wash) your feet up to ankles.” [Surah al-Ma’idah, 5:6]

1. Abu Hurayrah (radhiAllaahu anhu) said: Rasoolullah (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam) said: The Prayer of anyone of you breaching purification is not accepted unless he makes Wudhu’. [Al-Bukhari, (Fath ul-Baaree, 1/206), Muslim (no. 225) and others].

2. Ibn ‘Umar (radhiAllaahu anhu) said: Indeed I heard Rasoolullah (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam) say: Allaah does not accept Prayer without purification, nor Sadaqah from illegally attained wealth. [Muslim (1/160) and others].

3. Ibn ‘Abbas (radhiAllaahu anhu) said: Rasoolullah (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam) said: Verily I have been ordered to make Wudhu’ when I stand for Prayer. [Sahih. Reported by Abu Dawud (no. 3760); al-Tirmidhi (no. 1848), and he declared it to be ‘hasan-Sahih’: an-Nasaa.ee (1/73). And Shaykh al-Albani declares it to be ‘Sahih’ (‘Sahih ul-Jami’, no. 2333)].

4. Abu Sa’id (radhiAllaahu anhu) said: Rasoolullah (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam) said: The key to Prayer is purification, its ‘tahreem’ [That which makes normal actions, such as eating and talking, forbidden therein. again] is the takbir and its ‘tahleel’ [That which renders normal actions permissible] is the giving salam. [Reported by Abu Dawud (no. 60); al-Tirmidhi (no. 3); Ibn Majah (no. 275) and others. Declared as ‘Sahih’ by Shaykh al-Albani: (‘Sahih ul-Jami’, no. 5761)].

The Excellence of Wudhu’

5. Abu Hurayrah (radhiAllaahu anhu) said: Rasoolullah (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam) said: Shall I not guide you to that by which Allaah wipes away the sins and raises the ranks? They said: Certainly O Messenger of Allaah! He said Completing the Wudhu’ when it is a hardship, and many steps to the mosques and waiting for the [next] Prayer after the Prayer, that is ‘ar-Ribaat’ (defending the frontiers), that is ‘ar-Ribaat’ that is ‘ar-Ribaat’. [Reported by Muslim (1/151) and others].

6. Abu Hurayrah (radhiAllaahu anhu) reports that Rasoolullah (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam) said: When the Muslim (or ‘Believing’) servant makes Wudhu’ and washes his face then the sin of everything he looked at with his eye comes away with the water, or with the last drop of the water, and when he washes his hands then the sin of everything he stretched out his hands to comes away with the water, or with the last drop of the water. And when he washes his feet every sin which his feet walked towards comes away with the water or with the last drop of the water – so that he leaves clean (clear/pure) from sins. [Reported by Muslim (1/148) and others].

7. Abu Hurayrah (radhiAllaahu anhu) reports that Rasoolullah (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam) came to the graveyard and said: Peace be upon you, dwelling of Believing People and we will (all) if Allaah wills join you soon. I would have liked to have seen our brothers! They said: Are we not your brothers, O Messenger of Allaah? He said: You are my Companions and our brothers are those who have not yet come! They said: How will you know those who have not yet come from your Ummah, O Messenger of Allaah? He said: Have you not seen that if a man had a horse with a white blaze and hoof along with a totally jet-black horse, then would he not know his horse? They said: Certainly, O Messenger of Allaah. He said: So they will come with white blazes and marks from the Wudhu’ and I am present before them at the Hand (‘water-tank’) Indeed men will be driven away from my ‘water-tank’ as the lost camel is driven away from their gathering place. ‘Come on’. So it will be said: ‘Indeed they have made changes after you,’ so I will say: Be off, be off. [Muslim 249].

8. Abu Umaamah (radhiAllaahu anhu) said: Rasoolullah (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam) said: When a Muslim makes Wudhu’ the sins he has committed come away from his hearing and from his sight and from his hand and from his feet, so when he sits he sits down having been forgiven. [Reported by Ahmad (5/252) and is hasan].

9. Abu Malik al-Ash’ari (radhiAllaahu anhu) said: Rasoolullah (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam) said Purification is half of Imaan. And ‘al-hamdu lillah’ fills the Scales. And ‘subhaanAllaah’ and ‘al-hamdu lillah’ fill whatever is between the heaven and the earth. And Prayer is a light. And Sadaqah is a clear proof. And Sabr (patience) is a shining light. And the Quran is a proof for or against you. Every person starts the day dealing for his own soul so he either sets it free or destroys it. [Reported by Muslim (1/140) and others].

10. ‘Uthman (radhiAllaahu anhu) said: Rasoolullah (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam) said: Whoever makes Wudhu’ and makes it well, his sins come out from his body, even coming out from under his nails. [Reported by Muslim (3/133) and others].

11. ‘Uthman (radhiAllaahu anhu) said: Rasoolullah (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam) said: Whoever makes Wudhu’ like this – then all of his previous sins are forgiven – and his Prayer and his walking to the mosque are above and beyond that. [Reported by Muslim, 3/113].

12. Ibn ‘Umar (radhiAllaahu anhu) said: Rasoolullah (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam) said: When one of you makes Wudhu’ and makes it well, then goes out to the mosque – having no purpose except Prayer – then his left foot continues to wipe away his evil deeds and his right foot continually writes for him good deeds until he enters the mosque. And if the people knew what there was in the night prayer and Subh prayers – then they would come to them even if they had to crawl. [Reported by at-Tabraanee in ‘al-Mu’jam al-Kabeer’. And Shaykh al-Albani declares it to be Sahih (As-Sahihah, no. 454). And its meaning is reported by al-Bukhari and Muslim from the narration of Abu Hurayrah].

13. Abu Hurayrah (radhiAllaahu anhu) said: Rasoolullah (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam) said: Whoever makes Wudhu’ and makes it well then goes out – and then finds that the people have finished the Prayer – then Allaah gives him the same reward as one who had prayed it along with the people without diminishing any of their reward. [Reported by Abu Dawud (no. 564) and an-Nasaa’ee (no. 856) and others. al-Albani declares it to be ‘Sahih’ (As-Sahihah, no. 6039)].

14. Zayn ibn Khalid al Juhani (radhiAllaahu anhu) relates that the Prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam) said: Whoever makes Wudhu’ and makes it well, then prays two rak’ahs not letting his mind wander in them – then Allaah forgives him all of his previous sins. [Reported by Abu Dawud (no. 905) and others. al-Albani declares it to be ‘hasan’ (As-Sahihah, no. 6041)].

15. ‘Uqbah ibn ‘amir (radhiAllaahu anhu) said: Rasoolullah (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam) said: Whoever makes Wudhu’ and makes it well, then prays two rak’ahs concentrating therein with his heart and his face – then Paradise is obligatory for him. [Reported by an-Nasaa’ee. al-Albani declares it to be ‘Sahih’ (As-Sahihah, no. 6062)].

16. ‘Uthman (radhiAllaahu anhu) said: I heard Rasoolullah (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam) say: Whoever makes Wudhu’ for Prayer and completes the Wudhu’ – then walks to the obligatory Prayer and prays it with the people – or with the congregation – or in the mosque – then Allaah forgives his sins. [Reported by Muslim (1/144) and others].

17. ‘Ali (radhiAllaahu anhu) relates that Rasoolullah (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam) said: Completing the Wudhu’ when it is a hardship, and walking to the mosque, and waiting for the next prayer after the previous one (greatly) washes away the sins. [Reported by al-hakim (1/132) who declared it to be Sahih to the standard of Muslim. And al-Haithumee said in ‘Az-Zawaa-id’: It is narrated by Abu Ya’la and al-Bazzaar. And its narrators are up to the standard of Al-Bukhari],

18. Humraan ibn Aban relates that ‘Uthman asked for water to make Wudhu’ – then he mentioned how the Prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam) made Wudhu’. Then he said: The Prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam) said at the end of the hadith Whoever makes Wudhu’ in the same way that I have just made Wudhu’ then stands up and prays two rak’ahs, not thinking of other things, then his previous sins are forgiven. [Related by al-Bukhari (Fath ul-Baaree, 11/213) and Muslim (no. 226) and an-Nasaa’ee ( 1/63)] .

The Components of Wudhu’

An-Niyyah (Intention)

This is the firm resolve of the heart to perform Wudhu’ in obedience to the order of Allaah ta’ala and His Messenger (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam). Ibn Taimiyyah (rahimahullah) said (Majmu’at-ur-Rasaa-il il-Kubraa 1/243): “The place of the niyyah is the heart and not the tongue in all forms of ‘ibadah – and that is agreed upon by all the Muslim scholars – Purification, Prayer, Zakat, Sawm, hajj, ‘Itq (freeing of slaves), Jihad, etc. If he were to express with his tongue other than that which he intended in his heart – then what he intended is counted, not what he said. If he voiced the intention with his tongue and the intention was not in his heart, that will not count – by total agreement of all the scholars of Islam – so the niyyah is the firm intention and resolve itself.”

19. As Rasoolullah (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam) himself explained in the hadith narrated by ‘Umar (radhiAllaahu anhu) in the Sahihain: Verily the actions are by intention and there is for everyone only what he intended… [Fath-ul-Baaree, 1/9, and Muslim, 6/48].

At-Tasmiyyah (Mentioning Allaah’s Name)

20. Abu Hurayrah (radhiAllaahu anhu) said that Rasoolullah (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam) said: There is no Wudhu’ for him who does not mention Allaah’s name upon it. [Reported by Ibn Majah (no. 399), At-Tirmidhi (no. 26), Abu Dawud (no. 101) and others. Ash-Shaykh al-Albaani says: hadith Sahih (Sahih al-Jaarni’, no. 7444)].

Imam Ahmad in one of his two sayings is of the opinion that it is obligatory in Wudhu’, ghusl, and Tayammum. He was followed in this opinion by Abu Bakr, and it is the saying of al-hasan (al-Basaree) and Imam Ishaq – as reported by Ibn Qudamah in ‘al-Mughni’ (1/84) and their proof is this hadith.

Ibn Qudamah adds: If we take the saying that it is obligatory, then the Wudhu’ of one who deliberately leaves it is not correct as he has left an obligatory duty in Purification – just as if he had left the intention; and if he left it forgetfully then his purification is correct. (al-Mughni). And this is the saying that we regard as being correct.

As for Ibn Taimiyyah (rahimahullah) he held it to be obligatory if the related hadith was authentic – as occurs in his Kitab-ul-Imaan – and the hadith is authentic, so therefore his opinion (rahimahullah) is that it is obligatory.

21. Al-Bukhari and Muslim report from Anas (radhiAllaahu anhu) that some of the Companions of the Prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam) sought water for Wudhu’, so Rasoolullah (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam) said: Does any of you have water? So he put his hand into the water and said: Make Wudhu’ in the name of Allaah. And I saw the water coming out from between his fingers until they all made Wudhu’. Thabit said: “I said to Anas (radhiAllaahu anhu): How many were there? He said: About seventy. [Al-Bukhari, 1/236, Muslim, 8/411, An-Nasaa’ee, V8].

As for the proof for that which we have stated – it is his (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam) saying “Make Wudhu’ in the name of Allaah.” As for those who say that it is only sunnah mu’akkadah then they base that upon the relative hadith being da’if (There is no Wudhu’…). However since the hadith is Sahih as we have explained, then there remains no proof for them and the proof is with us, and Allaah Knows Best.

So it is therefore obligatory as we have shown; however, the one who forgets should mention Allaah’s name when he remembers.

Washing the Hands

22. Humraan (radhiAllaahu anhu) narrates that ‘Uthman called for water to make Wudhu’ and washed his hands three times… then said: I saw Rasoolullah (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam) make Wudhu’ just as I have made Wudhu’. [Al-Bukhari and Muslim, and as preceded].

23. Abu Hurayrah (radhiAllaahu anhu) said: Rasoolullah (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam) said: When one of you awakes from sleep then let him not enter his hand into the bowl/vessel until he washes it three times as he does not know where his hand has spent the night. [Al-Bukhari (Fath ul-Baaree, 1/229), Muslim and it is his wording, as al-Bukhari doesn’t report “three times”].

24. And in the hadith of’Abdullah ibn Zayn (radhiAllaahu anhu) he was asked about the Wudhu’ of the Prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam), so he called for a bowl of water and made Wudhu’ from it as the Prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam) made Wudhu’, and he poured out water from the bowl upon his hand and washed it three times. [Al-Bukhari (al Fath, l/255), Muslim, 3/121].

25. Aus ibn Abi Aus reports from his grandfather (radhiAllaahu anhu) who said: I saw Rasoolullah (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam) make Wudhu’ washing his hands three times. [Ahmad (4/9), An-Nasaa’ee (1/55) – with Sahih isnad].

Al-Madmadah and Al-Istinshaaq

Al-Madmadah: Is washing the mouth and moving the water around within it.

Al-Istinshaaq: Is taking water into the nose and breathing it into its backmost part.

Al-Istinthaar: Is expelling the water from the nose after istinshaaq.

Washing the Mouth and Nose Together with One Handful (of Water)

26. ‘Abdullah ibn Zayn al-AnSari said that it was said to him: Perform for us the Wudhu’ of Rasoolullah (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam), so he called for a pot of water… until he said: So he washed his mouth and nose with a single handful and did that three times. [Al-Bukhari and Muslim].

Washing the Mouth

27. In the hadith of ‘Amr ibn Yahya (radhiAllaahu anhu) he said: And he washed his mouth and nose using three handfuls of water. [Muslim, 3/123].

Al-Imam al-Nawawi says: And in this hadith is a clear proof for the correct opinion that the sunnah in washing the mouth and nose is that it should be with three handfuls of water – washing the mouth and nose [together] with each of them.

28. In the hadith of ‘A’ishah (radhiAllaahu anhu) in which she describes the Wudhu’ of the Prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam) that he said: When you make Wudhu’ then wash your mouth. [al-Bayhaqi says: ‘Its isnad is Sahih.’ And it contains an addition to the previous hadith of ‘A’ishah in Abu Dawud, no. 143].

Washing the Nose and Expelling the Water

29. Abu Hurayrah (radhiAllaahu anhu) narrates that the Prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam) said: When one of you makes Wudhu’ then let him enter water into his nose, then expel it. [Al-Bukhari (al-Fath, 1/229), Muslim (no. 237), Abu Dawud (no. 140)].

30. Exerting in sniffing in the water as long as you are not fasting is reported in the hadith of Laqeet (radhiAllaahu anhu) who said: O Rasoolullah (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam), inform me of the Wudhu’. He said Complete the Wudhu’ and rub between the fingers and exert in breathing in the water into the nose unless you are fasting. [Abu Dawud, no. 142; At-Tirmidhi, no. 38; An-nasaa’ee, no. 114; Ibn Majah, no. 407; and others]. (Declared as Sahih by Ibn Hibban and al-Haakim, and al-Dhahabi agreed to that. Also declared as Sahih by Ibn al Qaataan, An-Nawawi and Ibn Hajr. Refer to the footnote in al-Baghawi’s Sharh us-Sunnah: 1/417].

It is clear from these two ahaadith that washing the mouth and nose are both obligatory (wajib). Ibn Qudamah says in ‘al-Mughni’: Washing the nose and washing the mouth are both obligatory in both forms of purification – Ghusl and Wudhu’ – as washing the face is obligatory in both of them in the established view of the madhhab; and it is the saying of Ibn al-Mubarak, Ibn Abi Laila and Ishaq, and it is reported from ‘Ataa.

Taking Water into the Nose with the Right Hand and Expelling it with the Left

‘Abd Khair said: We were sitting looking towards ‘Ali – as he made Wudhu’ – and he entered into his mouth a handful of water with his right hand and washed his mouth and nose, then expelled it from his nose with his left hand – he did that three times, then said: Whoever would like to see the way of purification of Rasoolullah (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam) – then this is his purification. [Reported by al-Darimi. Ash-shaikh al-Albani says in his notes on al-Mishkat: Its isnad is Sahih].

Washing the Face

The face (wajh) is determined as being everything between the beginnings of the hair down to the cheeks and the chin, and up to the start of the ears including that which is between the beard and ear.

Allaah ta’ala says:

“O you who believe! When you intend to offer As-Salat (the prayer), wash your faces and your hands (forearms) up to the elbows, rub (by passing wet hands over) your heads, and (wash) your feet up to ankles.” [Surah al-Ma’idah, 5:6]

Humraan ibn Aban narrates that ‘Uthman (radhiAllaahu anhu) called for water to make Wudhu’ and so mentioned the way in which the Prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam) made Wudhu’. Humraan said: Then he washed his face three times. [Al-Bukhari (al-Fath, 1/312), Muslim (no. 226)].

Running Water Through the Beard with the Fingers

31. ‘Uthman (radhiAllaahu anhu) narrates that the Prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam) used to run his (wet fingers) through his beard. [At-Tirmidhi (no. 31), Ibn Majah (no. 430), Ibn Jaarood (p. 43) and al-hakim (1/14~) who declared its isnad as Sahih as did Ibn Khuzaimah and Ibn Hibban. See the note in al-Baghagawi’s Sharh us-Sunnah, 1/421].

32. Anas (radhiAllaahu anhu) narrates that the Prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam), when he made Wudhu’ , used to take a handful of water and enter it below his chin and rub it through his beard and said: This is what my Lord – the Great and Exalted – has ordered me to do. [Abu Dawud (no. 145), al-Baihaqee (1/54), al-hakim (1/149). Ash-Shaykh al-Albaani declares it to be Sahih (Sahih ul-Jami’, no. 4572)].

Some of the scholars have declared that entering water through the beard is obligatory and say: If he deliberately leaves it – then he must repeat the ( Wudhu’ and) prayer. And this is the saying of Imam Ishaq and Abu Thaur.

Most of the scholars however, are of the opinion that the order is an order of desirability (istihbaab) and it is not obligatory – and that it is clearer that, that which is obligatory is moving water through that part of the beard… so that it reaches the skin underneath. [Al-Khattabee, 1/56].

Imam Ahmad and Laith and most of the scholars hold that moving water through the beard is obligatory when taking ghusl from Janaabah – and not obligatory in Wudhu’ . [‘Aun al Ma’bood, 1/247].

Washing the Arms Including the Elbows

Note: The arms here which we are ordered to wash begin with the fingertips and hands – which are to be included in this washing – they being part of the arm (yad) which we are ordered to Wash in the ayah.

Allaah ta’ala says:

“O you who believe! When you intend to offer As-Salat (the prayer), wash your faces and your hands (forearms) up to the elbows, rub (by passing wet hands over) your heads, and (wash) your feet up to ankles.” [Surah al-Ma’idah, 5:6]

Humraan ibn Aban reports that ‘Uthman (radhiAllaahu anhu) called for water for Wudhu’ and mentioned the Prophet’s (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam) way of making Wudhu’ – and Humraan said: Then he washed his right arm including the elbow three times, then the left in the same way. [Al-Bukhari and Muslim as has preceded].

Regarding inclusion of the elbows in the washing of the arms – scholars have differed: Some of them saying that they must be included in this washing, and others saying that this is not so. And this difference of opinion is due to their disagreement over the meaning of the word “ila” (to) in the ayah – does it mean ‘up to/until’ or ‘up to and including’ ?

He who says that it means ‘up to’ does not include the elbows in the washing – just as Allaah ta’ala says: … thumma ‘atimmus-siyaama ila -llail: (then complete your Saum (fast) till the nightfall;) [Surah al-Baqarah, 2:187]. And this is the opinion of some of the companions of Imam Malik.

Most scholars, however, hold the view that the meaning is ‘up to and including/along with’ – and thus include the elbows in the washing and use as their evidence Allaah ta’ala’s saying: …wa yayazidkum quwwatan ila quwwatikum…: (…and add strength to your strength,) [Surah al-Hud 11:52]

33. The proof in this matter is the hadith of Nu’aim ibn Mijmar who said: I saw Abu Hurayrah make Wudhu’ – he washed his face and completed the Wudhu’, then washed his right hand until he reached the upper arm, then his left hand till he reached the upper arm” – then in the end of the hadith he said: “This is how I saw Rasoolullah (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam) make Wudhu’. [Muslim, 1/246]

So, dear reader, it is clear from this hadith that the Prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam) used to wash the elbows further, he used to increase upon that and wash part of the upper arm.

34. Jabir (radhiAllaahu anhu) said that when the Prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam) made Wudhu’, he would pass the water over his elbows. [Reported by al-Daraqutni (1/15), al-Baihaqee (1/56) and others – Ibn Hajr declared it to be hasan. And Ash-Shaykh al-Albani declared it to be Sahih (Sahih ul-Jami’, 4547)].

Wiping the Head and Ears and ‘Imamah

1. Wiping over all of the head as Allaah ta’ala says: …wamsahoo bi ru’oosikum…: (rub (by passing wet hands over) your heads,) [Surah al-Ma’idah, 5:6]

Ibn Qudamah says in ‘al-Mughni’: Some of the people who claim that that which is ordered to be wiped is part of the head only – claim that the (Baa) [in the verse] means “part of” as if He had said: “Wipe part of your heads”.’ However, we say that in His saying wamsahoo bi ru’oosikum the (Baa) is as if He said regarding Tayammum wamsahoo bi wujoohikum [Allaah ta’ala orders us to wipe the faces].

Therefore, their saying that the (Baa) means “part of” is incorrect and unknown to the scholars of the language. Ibn Burhan says: ‘He who claims that the “baa” means “part of” has declared before the scholars of the language that of which they have no knowledge. [al-Mughni, 1/112].

Ash-Shaukaanee (rahimahullah) says in Nail-ul-Autaar: It is not established that it means “part of” and Seebawaih (one of the foremost scholars of the al-‘Arabic language) has denied that in fifteen places in his book. (Nail-ul-Autaar, 1/193).

35. In the hadith of’Abdullah ibn Zayn (radhiAllaahu anhu) is a further proof of the incorrectness of the saying that it means “a part of” – in that the Prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam) wiped his head with his two hands, moving them forwards and backwards – beginning with the front of the head and (wiping) with them up to his nape then he (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam) returned them to the place from which he began. [Al-Bukhari (al-Fath, 1/251), Muslim (no. 235), al-Tirmidhi (no. 28) and others].

2. Wiping the ears: The ruling for the ears is the same as that for the head.

36. And it is authentically reported that Rasoolullah (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam) said: The two ears are a part of the head. [Reported by al-Tirmidhi, no. 37; Abu Dawud, no. 134 and Ibn Majah, no. 444]. (Declared by ash-Shaykh al-Albani to be Sahih – al-Sahihah, 1/36 – and Imam Ahmad was of the view that wiping the ears has the same ruling as that for wiping the head.)]

As for those who hold the view that it is a sunnah they do not have any evidence except their regarding this hadith as being da’if – it is however authentic due to a chain of narration which they did not come across and so the proof is with our saying – and Allaah Knows best.

And of the scholars who hold that they are part of the head are Ibn al-Musayyib, ‘Ataa, al-hasan, Ibn Sirin, Sa’id ibn Jubair and an-Nakha’ee and it is the saying of ath-Thauree and Ahl ur-Ra’y and Imams Malik and Ahmad ibn hanbal.

Taking Fresh Water for the Head and Ears

37. Ash-Shaykh al-Albani says in ‘al-da’ifah’, no. 995: There is not to be found in the Sunnah anything which obligates taking fresh water for the ears – therefore he should wipe them along with the water for the head – just as it is also permissible to wipe the head with the water remaining from that of the arms after washing them according to the hadith of Ar-Rabi’ ibnt Mu’awwidh that the Prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam) “wiped his head with water remaining in his hand”. [Reported by Abu Dawud and others with hasan isnad].

The Way of Wiping

38. From ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Amr – about the way of performing Wudhu’ – he said: Then he (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam) wiped his head and entered his two forefingers into his ears and wiped the backs of his ears with his thumbs. [Reported by Abu Dawud (no. 135), an-Nasaa’ee (no. 140), Ibn Majah (no. 422) and authenticated by Ibn Khuzairnah].

Wiping Over the ‘Imamah (Turban) Only

39. ‘Amr ibn Umayyah (radhiAllaahu anhu) said: I saw Rasoolullah (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam) wipe over his turban and leather socks. [Reported by al-Bukhari (al Fath, 1/266) and others].

40. Bilal (radhiAllaahu anhu) reports that the Prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam) wiped over the leather socks and the head cover. [Reported by Muslim, 1/159].

Wiping Over the Turban and Forelock

41. Al-Mughirah ibn Shu’bah (radhiAllaahu anhu) reports that the Prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam) made Wudhu’ and wiped over his forelock and over the turban and leather socks. [Reported by Muslim, 1/159].

Ibn Qudamah says in ‘al-Mughni’ (1/310); And if part of the head is uncovered and it is normally so, then it is preferable to wipe over that along with the turban – that is recorded from Ahmad: as the Prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam) wiped over his turban and forelock – as occurs in the hadith of al-Mughirah ibn Shu’bah.

As for caps/’prayer hats’, it is not permissible to wipe over them as Ahmad says for various reasons, from them:

  1. They do not cover all of the head normally, nor are they tied around it.
  2. There is no difficulty in their removal.

As for the woman’s head cover – it is permissible to wipe over it as Umm Salamah used to wipe over her head cover – as reported by Ibn al-Mundhir. (See’al-Mughni’, 1/312).

Washing the Feet and Ankles

Allaah ta’ala says: …wa arjulakum ilal ka’bayn…: (…and (wash) your feet up to ankles.;) [Surah al-Ma’idah, 5:6] [thus ordering the washing of the feet and ankles].

42. Ibn ‘Umar (radhiAllaahu anhu) said: Rasoolullah (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam) fell behind us and then came upon us during a journey, then we found him and it was time for ‘Asr – so we began to make Wudhu’ and wipe over our feet, so he (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam) called out at the top of his voice Woe to the ankles from the Fire. (two or three times) [Al-Bukhari (al Fath, 1/232) and Muslim, 3/128].

An-Nawawi says in his explanation of Sahih Muslim after mentioning the hadith: Muslim’s intention (rahimahullah) in quoting these hadith was to prove with it the obligation of washing the feet – and that wiping them is not sufficient.

43. In the hadith of al-Bukhari and Muslim from Humraan ibn Aban that ‘Uthman (radhiAllaahu anhu) called for water for Wudhu’ and then mentioned the Wudhu’ of the Prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam) – then Humraan said: Then he washed his right foot to the ankle three times and then his left foot to the ankle three times.

44. As Abu Hurayrah (radhiAllaahu anhu) did in Muslim’s narration: “Then he washed his right foot till he reached the shin, then he washed the left foot till he reached the shin” and in the end of the hadith said: This is what I saw Rasoolullah (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam) do. [Muslim, 1/246].

From this hadith – O Brother Muslim – it becomes clear that the ankles enter into this washing as is clear from his saying ’till he reached the shin’.

45. Al-Mustaurad (radhiAllaahu anhu) said: When the Prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam) made Wudhu’ he would enter the water between his toes with his little finger. [Reported by Abu Dawud (no. 148), at-Tinnidhee (no. 40) and Ibn Majah (no. 446). Declared as ‘Sahih’ by al-Albani].

As-San’aanee says in ‘Subul-us-Salam’ after quoting this hadith: It is a proof for the obligation of wiping between the toes – and this also occurs in the hadith of Ibn ‘Abbas which we have indicated – which is reported by al-Tirmidhi, Ahmad, Ibn Majah and al-hakim – and authenticated by al-Bukhari. And it is done by using the little finger. (See ‘Subul-us-Salam’, 1/48).

46. And Laqeet ibn Sabarah said: Rasoolullah (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam) said Complete the Wudhu’ and wipe between the Asaabi’ (fingers and/or toes). [Abu Dawud (no. 142), al-Tirmidhi (no. 37), an-Nasaa’ee (no. 114), Ibn Majah (no. 407), al-Hakim (1/148). al-Albani says: Sahih]. As-San’aanee says: It clearly means both the fingers and toes and is shown clearly in the hadith of Ibn ‘Abbas. [Subul-us-Salam, 1/47].

The Reply to Those who Follow Wiping of the Feet Without Washing

(1) Wiping the feet when not wearing anything on the foot is not established from the Prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam). As for their using as a proof the reading of the Aayah: wamsahoo bi ru’oosikum wa arjulakum ilal ka’bayn: (rub (by passing wet hands over) your heads, and (wash) your feet up to ankles…) [Surah al-Ma’idah, 5:6] reading (arjulikum) – and saying that the feet are thus connected to (the command to wipe) the heads – and this is not correct, rather they are connected to (the order to wash) the hands. As for the reading of the word (arjulikum) with K’asra of the lam – as-San’aanee says: That is for wiping over the leather socks – as is shown by the Sunnah – and this is the best interpretation for this particular recital. (As-Subul, 1/58).

(2) The Quran is not to be explained according to the human intellect – especially in the matters of worship such as Salat and Wudhu’ , etc. – but by the Sunnah which explains this Pillar. And there are many such examples in the Quran which the Prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam) explained by his sayings – and from this is the washing of the feet – and its proof from the Sunnah has preceded.

(3) If they wish to use the intellect then we say to them: The bottom of the foot has more right to be wiped than the surface (their saying being the wiping of the surface), and if they say: Then what about the socks? we say: That is established from the Prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam) just as washing the foot is also established in the Sunnah.

(4) Leaving out one of two verbs and sufficing with one of them, as the Arabs, when two verbs come together having similar meaning and are followed by things related to them, makes it permissible to mention only one of the two verbs and attaching those things relating to the second to those relating to the first which is mentioned – according to what the wording demands, until it is as if the two are partners with regard to the verb, as the poet said: I fed it with hay and cold water. And what is meant is: I fed it with hay and gave it cold water to drink.

(5) The saying of az-Zajjaj (a great scholar of the language): It is permissible that the wording (arjulikum) has the meaning of ‘wash the feet’ as the wording (ilal Ka’bain) conveys that meaning – as the mentioning of a limit suggests washing just as Allaah ta’ala says ilal maraafiq [that is the limit of the elbows is for washing] however, if wiping were intended then there would be no need for mention of a limit just as Allaah ta’ala says wamsahoo bi ru’oosikum not mentioning any limit (for wiping the head) and further the term wiping can be used to mean washing. (Al-Mirqaat, 1/400).

(6) And further, the great majority of scholars have agreed that it is obligatory to wash the feet and that is reported – and reaches the level of mutawatir from the Prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam) as al-hafiz Ibn Hajr says; and further it is not established that any of the Sahabah differed regarding that – except what is reported from ‘Ali, Ibn ‘Abbas and Anas (radhiAllaahu anhuma) – and it is established that they went back on that. (Al-Mirqaat. 1/400).

47. And Abu Hurayrah (radhiAllaahu anhu) reports that Rasoolullah (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam) came to the graveyard and said …they will come on the Day of Judgement with their blazes shining from the Wudhu’ (It has preceded, no. 7). Meaning the Rasoolullah (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam) will know from the traces of the washing, as for those who do not wash then he will not know them on the Day of Judgement.

Ibn Hajr says: And it is established that this shining of the faces, hands and feet are particular to the Muslim Ummah.

Other Aspects of Wudhu’

The Siwaak

The Siwaak is that which the mouth is brushed with. And it is also called the Miswaak, the plural being: Sook. And the siwaak comes from the Araak tree and it is a well-known tree. Abu Hanifah said: It is the best of the trees whose twigs are used for brushing the teeth… smelling of milk. Abu Ziyad said: From it is taken there tooth-sticks – from its twigs and roots – and the best part for that is its roots, and it is broadly spreading… And Ibn Shameel: The Araak is a tall fine-shoot green tree with many leaves and branches, having weak wood and growing in hollows – miswaaks are taken from it, being one of the citrus trees. Its singular is Araak and its plural Araa-ik. (Lisaan-ul-‘Arab, 268).

It is mustahabb (desirable) to use the siwaak at many different times as is established from the Prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam) that he used to use the siwaak at every Prayer, and before reading the Quran, and before sleeping and when waking, and when the breath changes – whether fasting or not – or whether at the start of the day or in the afternoon, and it is a form of worship which is easy therefore observe it, O my Muslim Brother.

48. And also when making Wudhu’, as Abu Hurayrah (radhiAllaahu anhu) narrates that Rasoolullah (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam) said: If I did not fear to cause hardship to my Ummah I would have ordered them to use the siwaak with every Wudhu’. [Reported by at-Tirrnidhee (no. 22) who said: hasan Sahih, and Malik (no. 123), Ahmad (4/116), Abu Dawud (no. 37) and others. al-Albani declared it to be Sahih (Takhree; ul Mishkaat, no. 390)].

49. And ‘A’ishah (radhiAllaahu anha) narrates that Rasoolullah (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam) said: The siwaak is a means of cleansing the mouth and pleasing the Lord. [Al-Bukhari reports it in mu’allaq form – connected by Ahmad, an-Nasaa’ee, Ibn Khuzaimah and Ibn Hibban].

Ad-Dalk (Rubbing the Water over the Body Parts):

This is part of the Wudhu’ authentically reported from the Prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam). Al-Mustawrid ibn Shadad said: I saw Rasoolullah (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam) when he made Wudhu’ rubbing his toes with his little finger. [Sahih as has preceded].

50. ‘Abdullah ibn Zayn (radhiAllaahu anhu) narrates that the Prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam) made Wudhu’ and said Rub in this way. [See Nail-ul-Autaar, 4/39].

51. He (radhiAllaahu anhu) also narrates that the Prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam) made Wudhu’ with two thirds of a mudd [The amount held by the two hands placed together.] (of water) and rubbed over his forearms. [Ibn Khuzaimah (no. 118), and its isnad is Sahih – and al-hakim (1/161) reports it by way of Yahya ibn Abi Zaa’idah].

Performing the Wudhu’ in the Order Mentioned in the ayah

As for what is narrated regarding the ‘order’ as mentioned in the Aayah, then there is nothing to contradict that – and this order is obligatory (wajib) and it is said: Sunnah. [See Fiqh al Imam Sa’id ibn al Musayyib, 1/64].

As for what is related with regard to the Prophet’s Wudhu’ (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam) then it has been reported sometimes out of the regular order. And the proof is:

52. Al-Miqdaam ibn Ma’d Yakrib said: I came to the Prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam) with water for Wudhu’, so he washed his hands three times, then washed his face three times, then washed his forearms three times, then washed his mouth and nose three times, then wiped his head and ears – their outsides and insides – and washed each of his feet three times. [Ahmad (4/132), Abu Dawud (1/19) with Sahih isnad. Ash-Shaukaanee (1/1~5) said: Its isnad is good, and it is reported by ad-Diyaa in ‘al-Mukhtaarah’. And al-Albani records it in ‘al-Sahihah’, no. 261] .

So this is a proof that he (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam) did not always stick to the regular order – and this is a proof that it is not obligatory – however, his sticking to it mostly shows that it is Sunnah. And Allaah Knows best.

As-Suyooti says as is reported from him in ‘Aun al Ma’bood’ ( 1/48): It is used as a proof – that is the aforementioned hadith – by him who says that sticking to the regular order in Wudhu’ is not obligatory as he washed his mouth and nose after washing his arms.

The author of ‘Aun al Ma’bood’ says: This narration is ‘shaadh’ [A narration whose isnad is authentic but contra??cts that which is better established.] – and therefore not to be taken in contradiction to the established narrations which put the washing of the mouth and nose before the washing of the face.

I say: The difference of opinion between the scholars here is with regard to those parts of Wudhu’ which are Sunnah. As for the obligatory duties – then they are according to the order mentioned in the noble Aayah, and the best thing is to perform all of the actions in the way mentioned in the majority of the ahadith – and Allaah Knows best.

Al-Mawa’alat (Washing Each Part Directly After the Previous one – Leaving no Time Gap in Between)

Nothing other than this is established from the Prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam). It is however established that Ibn ‘Umar (radhiAllaahu anhu) urinated within the market, then made Wudhu’ and so washed his face and hands and wiped his head, then he was called to pray over a Janazzah so he entered the mosque then wiped over his leather socks, then prayed over it. [Reported by Malik (no. 72) and al-Baihaqee (1/84). And ‘Ataa didn’t see anything wrong with leaving such gaps whilst making Wudhu’ and it is the saying of al-hasan, an-Nakha’ee and the better reported of the two sayings of al-Shafi’i].

Beginning with the Right

That is washing the right hand before the left – and likewise the feet.

53. ‘Aaishah (radhiAllaahu anha) said: Rasoolullah (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam) used to like to begin with the right in putting on shoes, comibng his hair, in purification and in all of his affairs. [Al-Bukhari (al Fath) 1/235, Muslim (no. 267) and others].

54. Abu Hurayrah (radhiAllaahu anhu) narrates that the Prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam) said: When you dress and when you make Wudhu’ , then begin with the right. [Abu Dawud (4141), al-Tirmidhi (1766), an-Nasaa’ee (402). al-Albani declares it to be Sahih].

Economizing in the Use of Water and not Being Wasteful

55. Anas (radhiAllaahu anhu) said: The Prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam) used to make Wudhu’ with a mudd (of water) and make ghusl with a saa’ or up to five mudds. [Muslim (1/156) and others]. A saa’ is equal to four mudds. ( A mudd is that amount of water which is held by the two hands cupped together.)

If you consider this hadith well, O my Muslim Brother, you would feel ashamed of what some people do these days – one of them opening the water tap and making Wudhu’ and sometimes talking to his companion whilst the water is running out – what an excess in wastefulness! So he who does that should fear Allaah and remember this hadith and keep it in mind and follow the Sunnah with regard to using the water sparingly and not being wasteful – and here the true following of the Prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam) is made clear and the true Muslim’s belief. It is from the Sunnah for the Muslim who wishes to make Wudhu’ to have with him a container large enough for a mudd of water – in order to force himself to return to the following of the Sunnah.

The Du’aa After the Wudhu’

56. ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab (radhiAllaahu anhu) said: Rasoolullah (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam) said: None of you makes Wudhu’ and completes the Wudhu’ then says: Ashhadu anla ilaha illa-Allahu wahdahu la shareekalahu washhadu anna Muhammadan ‘abduhu wa rasooluhu (I bear witness that none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah, and that Muhammad is His slave and Messenger) except that all eight Gates of Paradise are opened for him – so that he enters by whichever he pleases. [Reported by Muslim (no. 234), Abu Dawud (no. 169), al-Tirmidhi (no. 55), an-Nasaa’ee (no. 148), Ibn Majah (no. 470)].

And al-Tirmidhi adds an authentic addition to it: Allahumma aj’alnee minat-tawwabeen waj’alnee minal mutatahhireen (O Allaah, make me one of those who constantly repents to You and of those who purify themselves.) [Declared as Sahih by al-Albani].

57. Abu Sa’id al-Khudri (radhiAllaahu anhu) said: Rasoolullah (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam) said: Whoever makes Wudhu’ then says upon finishing the Wudhu’: SubhaanakAllahumma wa bihamdika ashhadu anla ilaha illa anta astaghfiruka wa atoobu ilaika (I declare You free from all defects my Lord and all praise belongs to you and I bear witness that there is none worthy of worship except You. I seek Your forgiveness and I turn to You) It is written in a parchment, then sealed and is not opened till Judgement Day. [Reported by Ibn ar-Sunnee in ‘Amal al Yaurn wal-llilah, no. 30. Declared as Sahih by al-Albani].

Washing Each Body-Part Once

68. Ibn ‘Abbas (radhiAllaahu anhu) said: Rasoolullah (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam) made Wudhu’ (washing each part) once. [Al-Bukhari (al Fath) 1/226].

Washing Each Body-Part Twice

59. ‘Abdullah ibn Zayn narrates that the Prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam) made Wudhu’ (washing each part) twice. [Al-Bukhari (al Fath) 1/226].

Washing Each Body-Part Twice

60. In the hadith of ‘Uthman (radhiAllaahu anhu) recorded by al-Bukhari and Muslim, he (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam) washed each of the parts three times.

So from these ahadith it becomes clear to us that, as is well-known to the large majority of scholars, washing each body-part once is obligatory – and the second and third washings are Sunnah – and it is better to do likewise following the Sunnah of the Prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam) [‘al-Majmu’ of al-Nawawi, 1/229].

The Desirability of Making Wudhu’ for Each Prayer

Al-hafiz says in ‘al Fath’ (1/172) in the question ‘Making Wudhu’ without having broken it’:

61. Anas (radhiAllaahu anhu) says: The Prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam) used to make Wudhu’ for every prayer. I said: What had you (the Sahabah) used to do? He said: One Wudhu’ was sufficient for us till such time as we broke it.

This hadith is an evidence that what is meant generally is the obligatory Prayer.

Al-Tahaawee says: It may be that that was obligatory upon him (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam) particularly – then was abrogated on the Day of Fath by the hadith of Buraydah – meaning that which Muslim reports – that he (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam) prayed all the Prayers on the Day of Fath with one Wudhu’ and that ‘Umar (radhiAllaahu anhu) asked him about that so he (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam) said I did it deliberately. Or it may be that he (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam) used to do it out of desirability only, then feared that it might be thought to be obligatory and so left it to show the permissibility of that.

I say: The result is that making Wudhu’ for every Prayer is mustahabb and praying all of the Prayers with one Wudhu’ is permissible – and Allaah Knows best.

The One who is not Sure if he has Broken the Wudhu’ or not Relies upon that which he is Certain of

If he who knows that he has made Wudhu’ then is not sure that he has broken it – then his Wudhu’ remains. And he who knows that he has done that which breaks Wudhu’ and doubts when he has made Wudhu’ thereafter then he does not have Wudhu’. In each case he relies upon that which he is certain of before that which he has doubt about – and he throws the doubt away. And this is the saying of the great majority of scholars – and it is the saying of Abu Hanifah, al-Shafi’i and Ahmad. [‘al-Mughni’, 1/193, and Fiqh ul Awaaa’ee, 1/56].

62. And the proof for this is what is established from Abu Hurayrah (radhiAllaahu anhu) who said: Rasoolullah (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam) said: If one of you feels something in his stomach and he isn’t sure did anything (wind) come out of it or not – then let him not leave the mosque until he hears a sound or finds a smell. [Muslim (Sharh al-Nawawi, 4/51), ‘Aaridat-ul-Ahwadhi Sharh ut-Tirmidhi, 1/79].

So the hadith is a proof that things remain upon their original state until there is a certainty of a change in that, and doubt does not harm that – so he who is sure of having made Wudhu’ and thinks that he may have broken it, then he remains upon Wudhu’.

A Man and Woman’s Washing from a Single Vessel

63. Ibn ‘Abbas (radhiAllaahu anhu) narrates that one of the wives of the Prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam) took a ghusl from Janaabah then saw Rasoolullah (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam) about to take a ghusl from the water remaining – so she informed him that she had made ghusl therefrom – so Rasululah said: Nothing makes the water impure. [Reported by Abu Dawud (no.67), and an-Nasaa’ee (no.326), and al-Tirmidhi who declared it to be hasan Sahih, and Ibn Majah (no.370)].

Ibn ‘Abd ul-Barr says: There is nothing in the Shari’ah to prevent each of them washing with the water remaining from the other – either together or one after the other, and this is the saying of the scholars of the different lands and the great majority of scholars – and the ahadith about it are Mutawaatir. (Al-Istidhkaar, 1/373).

Making Wudhu’ after Eating Camel Meat

64. Jabir ibn Samurah (radhiAllaahu anhu) narrates that a man asked Rasoolullah (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam): Should I make Wudhu’ because of the meat of sheep? He (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam) said If you wish make Wudhu’ and if you wish then do not make Wudhu’. He said: Should I make Wudhu’ from the meat of the camel? He (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam) said: Yes, make Wudhu’ from the meat of the camel. He asked: May I pray in sheep-pens? He (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam) said: Yes. He asked: May I pray in the stalls of camels? He (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam) said: No. [Reported by Muslim, 1/189].

Drying the Body Parts after Purification

‘Uthman ibn ‘Affaan, al- hasan ibn ‘Ali, Anas ibn Malik, al-hasan al-BaSri, Ibn Sirin, ‘Alqamah, al-Aswad, M’asrooq, ad-Dahhaak, ‘Abdullah ibn al Haarith, Abu Ya’la, Abu al Ahwas, Ash-Sha’bee, al-Thawri, Ishaq, Ibn ‘Umar in a narration, and Abu Hanifah, Malik, Ahmad, and the Shafi’i Madhhab in one saying, all say that it is permissible after both Wudhu’ and ghusl to dry the body-parts. And their evidence is what ‘A’ishah (radhiAllaahu anha) reports – she said: Rasoolullah (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam) had a cloth which he used to dry himself with after making Wudhu’. [Reported by al-Tirmidhi who declared it to be da’if]. Then al Ainee states that an-Nasaa’ee records it in ‘al-Kunaa’ with Sahih isnad.

I say: And it has other narrations which support and strengthen it. (See Fiqh al-Imam Sa’id, 1/70). al-Albani declares the hadith to be hasan. (Sahih ul Jami’, 4706).

65. Salman al-Faarsee narrates that the Prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam) made Wudhu’, then turned up a woollen cloak he had and wiped his face with it. [Reported by Ibn Majah (no. 468)]. In al-Zawa’id it is said: Its isnad is Sahih.

I say: In its isnad is al-Wadin ibn ‘Ataa who is sadooq but has a bad memory as al-hafiz Ibn Hajr says in ‘Taqreeb ut-Tahdheeb’, so its isnad is da’if!! – but it is strengthened by the previous hadith of ‘A’ishah to the level of hasan – and Allaah Knows best.

Some others hold it to be makrooh to dry the body-parts after Purification and their proof is:

66. What is established from Maimoonah (radhiAllaahu anha) who described the Prophet’s (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam) ghusl from Janaabah and said: Then I brought him a cloth but he refused it. [Al-Bukhari, and Muslim – and the word is his].

The Final word: Is that drying the body-parts is one of the desirable actions as shown by the hadith of A’ishah (radhiAllaahu anha) – as for the saying that it is makrooh then that is not acceptable as the saying of Maimoonah (radhiAllaahu anha) “but he refused it” does not amount to the fact that it is makrooh – and Allaah Knows best.

Those Things which Break Wudhu’

(1) That Which Comes Out from the Two Private Parts (Front And Back).

Abu Hurayrah (radhiAllaahu anhu) said: Rasoolullah (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam) said: Allaah does not accept the prayer of any one of you having committed hadath until he makes Wudhu’. [Al-Bukhari (al Fath, 1/206) and Muslim (no. 245)].

67. An-Nawawi says in ‘al-Majmu’ (2/3) as for that which comes out of the two private parts – then it breaks Wudhu’ according to Allaah ta’alas saying: Aw jaa’a ahadukum min al ghaa’it… : (any of you comes from answering the call of nature…) [Surah al-Ma’idah, 5:6] along with his (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam) saying There is no Wudhu’ except from a sound or a smell. [Sahih and has preceded (Sahih ul Jaarni’ (7443)].

He adds: So that which comes out of the front or back part of a man or woman breaks the Wudhu’ – whether excretion or urine or wind – or a worm or pus or blood or stones or anything else and there is no difference in that for something which happens normally or rarely.

(2) Sound Sleep [Khilaf (difference) of Scholars – That sleep is in itself something which breaks Wudhu’. Hadith “except from urine or excretion or sleep” … and further, thus hadith itself is a proof for this saying.]

68. ‘Ali ibn Abi talib (radhiAllaahu anhu) said: Rasoolullah (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam) said: The eye is the drawstring for the anus, so he who sleeps then let him make Wudhu’. [Abu Dawud (no. 203), Ibn Majah (no. 477), Ahmad. Declared as Sahih by al-Albani].

In the hadith is an evidence that sleep does not in itself something that breaks Wudhu’, however the Purification is broken if it is possible for something to come out from the anus – however if that is restricted, e.g. by sitting flat on the earth, then that is not the case.

(3) Becoming Unconscious – Other than Sleep

That is the ‘intellect’ going away by any means because of insanity or fainting or intoxication – as in this condition he does not know whether his Wudhu’ is broken or not. This is the saying of the great majority of scholars. (Sharh Sahih Muslim (4/74) and al-Mughni (1/164)).

(4) Touching the Uncovered Private Parts

69. Abu Hurayrah (radhiAllaahu anhu) said: Rasoolullah (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam) said If one of you touches his penis and there is no veil between him and it nor any cover, then Wudhu’ has become obligatory for him. [al-hakim (1/138) and others]. (al-Albani says: hadith Sahih.)

(5) Touching the Penis

70. Busrah (radhiAllaahu anha) said: Rasoolullah (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam) said: If one of you touches his penis then let him make Wudhu’. [At-Tirmidhi (1/18) who said it is hasan Sahih. And also declared as Sahih by Ahmad, al-Bukhari and Ibn Ma’in (Lum’aat ut-Tanqeeh Sharh Mishkaat ul Masaabeeh, no. 319). Others also narrate it as authentic].

71. Talq ibn ‘Ali (radhiAllaahu anhu) said: Rasoolullah (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam) was asked about a man’s touching his penis. Should he make Wudhu’? He (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam) said: And is it except a part of him? [At-Tirmidhi (no. 85) and he said: And this is the best of what is reported in this regard]. al-Albani says: Its isnad is Sahih, and this (the view that it doesn’t break the Wudhu’) is established as being that of a group of the Sahabah, from them: Ibn Mas’ud, ‘Ammaar ibn Yaasir, and because of these Imam Ahmad gave the choice between this and the one before it. Shaykh-ul-Islam Ibn Taimiyyah harmonized the two carrying the first to mean if he touched it with desire and this upon the touching without desire – and there is in this hadith that which gives that impression and it is his (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam) saying ‘a part of him’. [Al-Mishkaat al Masaabeeh, notes on nos. 3 19 and 320].

(6) Touching a Woman with Desire

72. A man’s touching a woman without desire does not break the Wudhu’. ‘A’ishah (radhiAllaahu anha) says: Rasoolullah (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam) prayed and I was lying in front of him as in front of a Janaazah, so when he wished to prostrate I pulled up my leg. [Al-Bukhari and Muslim].

73. And in the same way a woman’s touching a man without desire does not break Wudhu’ as is established from ‘A’ishah (radhiAllaahu anha): I didn’t find the Prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam) one night so I tried to find him with my hand – and my hand fell upon his feet which were raised up as he was making prostration. [Muslim (3/203) and an-Nasaa’ee (l/101)].

So we see from these two hadith that merely touching does not break the Wudhu’– and Allaah Knows best.

The author of’al-Ta’liqaat us-Salafiyyah’ upon Sunan of an-Nasaa’ee (1/23) says concerning “he pushed me with his foot”: It is well-known that that is a touching without desire. And so the author uses it as a proof that touching without desire does not break the Wudhu’. As for the touching with desire – its proof is that the Wudhu’ is not broken until a proof is established that it does indeed break it – and this is enough of a proof to show that it doesn’t break the Wudhu’ for the one who holds that view – and above and beyond that is a further proof that it doesn’t break the Wudhu’ is the hadith of kissing – as normally kissing is not free from touching with desire.

The author of ‘Aun al Ma’bood’ (1/69) says regarding her saying “he kissed me and did not make Wudhu” – It contains a proof that touching a woman does not break the Wudhu’ as kissing is part of touching and the Prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam) did not make Wudhu’ (before praying). And this (that touching a woman even with desire doesn’t break the Wudhu’) is the saying of ‘Ali and Ibn ‘Abbas and ‘Ataa ibn tawus, and Abu Hanifah and Sufyan al-Thawri. And this hadith is (in itself) da’if but is supported by other narrations. And it is mursal – however al-Daraqutni joins it – and it is (therefore) an authentic (Sahih) hadith in-sha’Allaah. (See Nasb ur Rayah, l/70).

The author of ‘al-Mughni’ (1/190) says: The touching is not in itself something which breaks Wudhu’ but breaks Wudhu’ as it leads to prostratic fluid or semen being emitted – so the condition which leads to breaking of the Wudhu’ is considered – and that is when there is desire.

Summary: That when a man and woman are safe from anything being emitted which breaks Wudhu’ – then their Wudhu’ is not broken; and it is preferable to be on the safe side, as they may not be safe from such emissions in the condition of desire – and Allaah Knows best.

Conclusion:

This is what Allaah ta’ala has made easy for us to gather together about the Wudhu’ and its rulings, so we hope from Allaah the Most High, the All-Powerful, that we have been able to do justice to the subject – and we hope that any scholarly solicitous brother who comes across anything in our booklet which is incorrect to cover up and give sincere advice. And it is Allaah who grants success.

REFERENCES:

1. Al Quran al Kareem.

2. Fat‘h al Bari – Explanation of Sahih ul Bukhari – by Ibn Hajr.

3. Sahih Muslim with al-Nawawi’s explanation.

4. Sunan Abi Dawud.

5. Sunan an-Nasaa’ee.

6. Jami’ ut-Tirmidhi.

7. Sunan Ibn Majah.

8. Al-Musnad of Imam Ahmad.

9. As-Sunan al Kubraa of aI-Baihaqee.

10. Al-Mustadrak ‘alas-Sahihain by al-hakim.

11. Al-Muwatta with az-Zarqaanees explanation.

12. Majma’ al-Zawa’id by al-Haitumee.

13. Nasb ur-Rayah of az-Zaila’ee.

14. Kanz ul Ummaal.

15. Al Mughnee wash-Sharh ul Kabeer- Ibn Qudamah.

16. Sharh us-Sunnah al Baghawee.

17. Al-Majmu’ of al-Nawawi.

18. Al-Isbidhkaar of Ibn ‘Abd il Barr.

19. Mirqaat ul Mafaateeh Sharh of Mishkaat ul Masaabeeh.

20. Sahih ul-Jami’ us-Sagheer by al-Albani.

21. Da’eef ul Jami’ us-Sagheer by al-Albani.

22. Nail ul Autaar of ash-Shaukaanee.

23. Subul us-Salam of as-San’aanee.

24. Fiqh us-Sunnah of Sayyid Sabiq.

25. Minhaj us-Sunnah of Ibn Taimiyyah.

26. Tahdheeb-ut-Tahdheeb of Ibn Hajr.

27. Fiqh of al Imam Sa’id ibn al Musayyib.

28. Fiqh of al Imam al Auzaa’ee.

29. Lisaan ul ‘Arab of Ibn Manzoor.

30. Mashaariq ul Anwaar.

31. ‘Aun al Ma’bood explana~ion of Abi Dawud.

32. ‘Aaridat-ul-Ahwadhi explanahon of al-Tirmidhi.

33. Tafsir Ibn Kathir.

34. Fath-ul-Qadeer by ash-Shaukaanee.

35. Kitab-ul-Imaan by Ibn Taimiyyah.

36. Majmu’at-ur-Rasaa’il il-Kubraa by Ibn Taimiyyah.

37. At Tafsir ul Kabeer of Al Fakhr-ur-Razee.

38. Lum’aat ut-Tanqeeh – explanation of Mishkaat ul-Masaabeeh.

39. At-Ta’leeqaat us-Salafiyyah upon Sunan of an-Nasaa’ee.

Translated by Dawud Burbank al-Britaanee

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