Begging is Permissible till one gets what will support life

Qabisa b. Mukhariq al-Hilali narrates that: “I was under debt and I came to the Messenger of Allah (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam) and begged from him regarding it.

He said: ‘Wait till we receive Sadaqah, so that we order that to be given to you.’

He again said: ‘Qabisa, begging is not permissible but for one of the three (classes) of persons: one who has incurred debt, for him begging is permissible till he pays that off, after which he must stop it; a man whose property has been destroyed by a calamity which has smitten him, for him begging is permissible till he gets what will support life, or will provide him reasonable subsistence; and a person who has been smitten by poverty. the genuineness of which is confirmed by three intelligent members of this peoples for him begging is permissible till he gets what will support him, or will provide him subsistence. Qabisa, besides these three (every other reason) for begging is forbidden, and one who engages in such consumes that what is forbidden.'” [Sahih Muslim, Book #005, Hadith #2271]

Abu Sa’id al-Khudri reported that some people from among the Ansar begged from the Messenger of Allah (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam) and he gave them. They again begged him and he again gave them, till when what was in his possession was exhausted he said: “Whatever good (riches, goods) I have, I will not withhold it from you. He who refrains from begging Allah safeguards him against want. and he who seeks sufficiency, Allah would keep him in a state of sufficiency, and he who shows endurance. Allah would grant him power to endure, and none is blessed with an endowment better and greater than endurance.” [Sahih Muslim, Book #005, Hadith #2291]

Anas ibn Malik narrates that: “A man of the Ansar came to the Prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam) and begged from him.

He (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam) asked: “Have you nothing in your house?”

He replied: “Yes, a piece of cloth, a part of which we wear and a part of which we spread (on the ground), and a wooden bowl from which we drink water.”

He said: “Bring them to me.”

He then brought these articles to him and he (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam) took them in his hands and asked: “Who will buy these?”

A man said: “I shall buy them for one dirham.”

He said twice or thrice: “Who will offer more than one dirham?”

A man said: “I shall buy them for two dirhams.”

He (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam) gave these to him and took the two dirhams and, giving them to the Ansari, he said: “Buy food with one of them and hand it to your family, and buy an axe and bring it to me.

The man then brought it to him (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam). The Apostle of Allah (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam) fixed a handle on it with his own hands and said: “Go, gather firewood and sell it, and do not let me see you for a fortnight.”

The man went away and gathered firewood and sold it. When he had earned ten dirhams, he came to him and bought a garment with some of them and food with the others. The Apostle of Allah (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam) then said: “This is better for you than that begging should come as a spot on your face on the Day of Judgment. Begging is right only for three people: one who is in grinding poverty, one who is seriously in debt, or one who is responsible for compensation and finds it difficult to pay.” [Sunan Abu Dawud, Book #9, Hadith #1637]

Hamza. son of ‘Abdullah, reported on the authority of his father that the Apostle of Allah (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam) said: “When a man is always begging from people. he would meet Allah (in a state) that there would be no flesh on his face.” [Sahih Muslim, Book #005, Hadith #2263]

Sahl ibn Hanzaliyyah narrates that: “Uyaynah ibn Hisn and Aqra’ ibn Habis came to the Apostle of Allah (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam). They begged from him. He commanded to give them what they begged. He ordered Mu’awiyah to write a document to give what they begged. Aqra’ took his document, wrapped it in his turban, and went away. As for Uyaynah, he took his document and came to the Prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam) at his home, and said to him: “Muhammad, do you see me? I am taking a document to my people, but I do not know what it contains, just like the document of al-Mutalammis.”

Mu’awiyah informed the Apostle of Allah (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam) of his statement. Thereupon the Apostle of Allah (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam) said: “He who begs (from people) when he has sufficient is simply asking for a large amount of Hell-fire. (An-Nufayl (a transmitter) said elsewhere: “embers of Hell”.)”

They asked: “Apostle of Allah, what is a sufficiency? (Elsewhere an-Nufayl said: What is a sufficiency which makes begging unfitting?)”

He replied: “It is that which would provide a morning and an evening meal.”

(Elsewhere an-Nufayl said: “It is when one has enough for a day and night, or for a night and a day.”) He (an-Nufayl) narrated to us this tradition briefly in the words that I have mentioned. [Sunan Abu Dawud, Book #9, Hadith #1625]

Abu Hurayrah narrates that : The Apostle of Allah (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam) said something similar as mentioned in the preceding tradition. This version adds: “But the poor man (miskin) who abstains from begging from the people is one (according to the version of Musaddad who does not get enough so that he may not beg from the people, nor is his need known to the people, so that alms be given to him. This is the one who has been deprived. Musaddad did not mention the words “one who avoids begging from the people.” [Sunan Abu Dawud, Book #9, Hadith #1628]

Yahya related to me from Malik from Abu’z-Zinad from al-Araj from Abu Hurayra that the Messenger of Allah (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam), said, “The very poor are not the people who constantly walk from person to person and are given one or two morsels, and one or two dates.”

They said, “Who are the very poor, Messenger of Allah?”

He said, “People who do not find enough for themselves and other people are not aware of them to give sadaqa to them, and they do not start begging from other people.” [Malik’s Muwatta, Book #49, Hadith #49.5.7]

Ibn al-Sa’di Maliki reported: ‘Umar b. Khattab (Allah be pleased with him) appointed me as a collector of Sadaqah. When I had finished that (the task assigned to me) and I handed over that to him (to ‘Umar), he commanded me to (accept) some remuneration (for the work).

I said: “I performed this duty for Allah and my reward is with Allah.”

He said: “Take whatever has been given to you, for I also performed this duty during the time of the Messenger of Allah (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam). He assigned me the task of a collector and I said as you say, and the Messenger of Allah (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam) said to me: “When you are given anything without your begging for it, (then accept it), eat it and give it in charity.”” [Sahih Muslim, Book #005, Hadith #2275]

Samurah ibn Jundub narrates that: “The Prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam) said: “Acts of begging are lacerations with which a man disfigures his face, so he who wishes may preserve his self-respect, and he who wishes may abandon it; but this does not apply to one who begs from a ruler, or in a situation which makes it necessary.” [Sunan Abu Dawud, Book #9, Hadith #1635]

Ibn ‘Umar narrates that: “I heard Allah’s Apostle (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam) while he was on the pulpit speaking about charity, to abstain from asking others for some financial help and about begging others, saying, “The upper hand is better than the lower hand. The upper hand is that of the giver and the lower (hand) is that of the beggar.” [Sahih Bukhari, Book #24, Hadith #509]

It is narrated by Abu Burda bin Abu Musa, that his father said, “Whenever a beggar came to Allah’s Apostle or he was asked for something, he used to say (to his companions), “Help and recommend him and you will receive the reward for it; and Allah will bring about what He will through His Prophet’s tongue.” [Sahih Bukhari, Book #24, Hadith #512]

Malik related to me from Zayd ibn Aslam that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Give to a beggar even if he comes on a horse.” [Malik’s Muwatta, Book #58, Hadith #58.1.3]

Abu Hurayrah reported Allah’s Messenger (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam) as saying: “Miskin is not he who is dismissed with one or two dates, and with one morsel or two morsels. (In fact) miskin is he who abstains (from begging). Read if you so desire (the verse): “They beg not of men importunately)” (2:273).” This hadith has been narrated through another chain of transmitters. [Sahih Muslim, Book #005, Hadith #2262]

Narrated by Al-Mughira bin Shu’ba that:

The Prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wassallam) said, “Allah has forbidden for you,
(1) to be undutiful to your mothers,
(2) to bury your daughters alive,
(3) to not to pay the rights of the others (e.g. charity, etc.) and
(4) to beg of men (begging).

And Allah has hated for you,
(1) vain, useless talk, or that you talk too much about others,
(2) to ask too many questions, (in disputed religious matters) and
(3) to waste the wealth (by extravagance).”
[Sahih Bukhari, Book #41, Hadith #591]


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